Named after the tobacco plant Nicotiana tabacum (after French ambassador to Portugal, Jean Nicot de Villemain), the introduction of nicotine dates all the way back to the late 1500s. First isolated by German chemists Posselt & Reimann in 1828 and later synthesized by A. Pictet and Crepieux in 1904, nicotine is an addictive and habit forming drug. Fortunately, there is assistance for people living with nicotine addiction.
Found in cigarettes, cigars, and smokeless tobacco products, nicotine induces changes in the brain. This causes those who use products with nicotine to constantly crave it. As it enters the body, it is quickly distributed through the bloodstream, passing through the brain within 10-20 seconds after inhalation. Generally speaking, the elimination half-life of nicotine in the body is two hours; however, because people tend to smoke more than one cigarette at a time, the elimination half-life can be up to eight hours.
Acting as both a stimulant and a relaxant, nicotine causes a release of glucose from the liver. And, epinephrine (adrenaline) from the adrenal medulla. Subsequently, users report feeling more relaxed, sharper, calmer, and more alert. This leaves them with a desire to experience such feelings again and again.